Ceramic Engineering

Ceramic engineering is a science and technology that uses inorganic non-metallic materials to make objects. The research scope of ceramic engineering includes the purification of raw materials, the research and production of required chemical components, and the research on the structure, composition and properties of the product.

Ceramic materials may contain all or part of the crystalline structure, which is widely ordered at the atomic level. Glass ceramics may have an amorphous or glass-like structure, with almost no degree of order or only a small range of order. Their manufacturing method may be obtained by cooling and solidifying molten material, by heating, or by chemical means such as hydrothermal or sol-gel method at low temperature.

The characteristics of ceramic materials make it possible to find many applications in materials engineering, electronic engineering, chemical engineering and mechanical engineering. Since ceramics are usually very heat-resistant, they can be used in many places where metals and polymers cannot. Ceramic materials have a wide range of applications in industry, including mining, aerospace, medicine, refining, military, food and chemical plants, electronics industry, industrial power transmission, and optical waveguide transmission, etc.


The word ceramic comes from the Greek word κεραμικός (keramikos), which means pottery. This word is related to the burning of ancient Indo-European roots. [2] In English, ceramics can be used as a singular noun, referring to ceramic materials or ceramic products, or as an adjective. The plural form of ceramics can be used to refer to the use of ceramic materials to make things. Like many sciences and technologies, ceramic engineering has undergone great development, and its previous meaning is very different from today’s standards. Materials science engineering and ceramic engineering are now converging.

Leo Morandi’s tile glazing line (circa 1945).
In 1709, Abraham Darby used coke for the first time in Shrop, England, to increase the output of the smelting process. Coke has now been widely used in the production of carbide ceramics. In 1759, potter Josiah Wedgwood opened the first modern ceramic factory in Stoke-on-Trent, England. In 1888, Austrian chemist Karl Bayer developed a production technology for separating aluminum from bauxite ore for the Russian textile industry. This technology is called the Bayer process. Now, the Bayer process is still used to purify aluminum for the ceramic industry and aluminum industry. Two brothers Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie discovered that potassium sodium tartrate has piezoelectric properties in about 1880, and piezoelectricity is one of the key properties of electronic ceramics.

In 1983, Edward Goodrich Acheson invented silicon carbide, or synthetic silicon carbide, by heating a mixture of coke and clay. French chemist Henry Moissan also synthesized silicon carbide and tungsten carbide in his electric arc furnace almost simultaneously. In 1923, Carl Schroth used liquid phase sintering in Germany to combine (or bond) Moissan carbide particles with cobalt. The use of this metal-bonded carbide to make a blade can greatly extend the life of a tool made of hardened steel. In the 1920s, Walter Nernst developed cubic zirconia production technology. This material is used as an oxygen sensor in the exhaust system. The only limitation of using ceramics in engineering is its fragility.

Military requirements

The military demand for ceramics during the Second World War (1939-1945) greatly promoted the development of ceramic engineering. The war created a demand for high-performance materials, which accelerated the development of ceramic science and technology. In the 1960s and 1970s of the twentieth century, many new types of ceramics were developed due to the requirements of nuclear technology, electronics industry, communications industry and space technology. In 1986, ceramic superconductors were discovered, which aroused research interest in the application of ceramic superconductors in electronic devices, motors, and transportation equipment.

The military sector has an increasing demand for high-strength, sturdy materials that can transmit light in the visible and mid-infrared bands. These materials can be used where transparent armor is required. Transparent armor A material or series of materials that are transparent and can provide protection against shrapnel. The main demand for transparent armor is not only to defeat threatening enemies, but also to provide a multi-strike capability that minimizes interference with surrounding areas. The transparent armored windows must be compatible with night vision equipment. People are looking for new thinner and lighter materials that can provide stronger protection capabilities [3]. This solid component is widely used in many different occasions, such as optical fibers, optical switches, optical amplifiers and lenses that can be used to transmit light waves in optoelectronics, and materials for manufacturing solid laser mainframes and transparent windows of gas lasers. , And infrared thermal search equipment for missile guidance systems and infrared night vision systems.

The above article is excerpted from Wikipedia

What is industrial precision ceramics and its classification

Industrial precision ceramics is a new type of ceramics. With the development of science and technology, more and more new types of ceramics have emerged. Industrial precision ceramics is one of them. Let’s follow Kezhong Ceramics to see what this new type of ceramic is.

Industrial precision ceramics have corrosion resistance, high temperature resistance, abrasion resistance, super-hardness, super-softness, and superconductivity, far exceeding traditional ceramics and existing metal or non-metal materials.

Industrial precision ceramics also have gas sensitivity, light sensitivity, heat sensitivity, humidity sensitivity, and piezoelectric properties. These properties are the basis for manufacturing artificial intelligence materials.

Therefore, some countries, especially those with relatively developed economy and technology, have placed the development of industrial precision ceramic materials in a very important strategic position, and invested a large number of engineers and technicians and funds in the research and development of industrial precision ceramic materials.

Industrial precision ceramics, also known as high-performance ceramics, engineering ceramics.

Classification of industrial precision ceramics:

A. Industrial precision can be divided into carbides, nitrides, oxides and borides according to the composition.

B. In terms of use, it can be subdivided into three categories: structural ceramics, cutting ceramics and functional ceramics (mainly using their electrical and magnetic properties).

Industrial precision ceramics are industrial ceramics that are made with strict control of ingredients and specific processes without mechanical grinding and processing, with a smooth and flat surface and satisfactory tolerances.

The use of industrial precision ceramics:

Industrial precision ceramics are mainly used to make circuit substrates, coil frames, electronic tube sockets, high-voltage insulating ceramics, and rocket front cones. It can also be made into high porosity precision casting cores for casting alloys. It can also be used as a high temperature material with good shock resistance.

This article is excerpted from https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/news/l9j2v9g.html

Application range of precision ceramics

In recent years, with the rapid development of industry, ceramics have also been widely used in industry. Below, Kezhong Precision Ceramics will introduce you to the application scope of precision ceramics.

Before introducing the application range of precision ceramics, let’s take a look at what is precision ceramics.

Precision ceramics refers to the use of highly selected and highly purified products without direct use of natural mineral raw materials; after precise control of chemical composition, microstructure, and grain size; manufacturing and processing are carried out in accordance with methods that facilitate structural design and preparation Ceramics with excellent characteristics (thermal, electronic, magnetic, optical, chemical, mechanical, etc.) are called precision ceramics. The microstructure of precision ceramics has remarkable characteristics. The three items of crystal phase, glass phase and pores coexist and are evenly distributed.

Precision ceramic gear
At present, foreign precision ceramics are mainly monopolized by developed countries. In particular, the production and application of precision ceramics in developed countries such as Japan, the United States, and Western Europe are the largest in the world. At present, the production scale of precision ceramics in my country is still small, mainly electronic ceramics. The application scope of precision ceramics is mainly in space technology equipment such as electronics, communications, chemicals, machinery, automobile manufacturing, energy, aerospace, and various sectors of the national economy. Specific applications are as follows:

Application scope of precision ceramics 1: Consolidate national defense and military construction

The defense industry and military construction have always been the main promoters and applications of new materials and technologies.

Application scope of precision ceramics: space technology equipment such as aviation and aerospace

The thermal protection system required by aviation, aerospace and other space technology equipment requires the advantages of withstanding high temperature, rapid temperature changes, heat insulation, high strength, light weight and long service life, such as the composite ablation of quartz used in the launch and recovery of artificial earth satellites The materials are all precision ceramic products.

Application scope three of precision ceramics: basic industry and traditional industry

At present, precision ceramics have been used as thermomechanical parts, cutting tools, wear-resistant and corrosion-resistant parts in basic industries and traditional industries such as chemicals and machinery, which has promoted the rapid development of industrial production in my country.

Application Scope Four of Fine Ceramics: Environmental Protection

Honeycomb ceramics are important precision ceramic products used in environmental protection, and they are becoming more and more popular. It protects the fragile environment of our branch factory from pollution and destruction.

This article is excerpted from https://kknews.cc/zh-tw/news/zppzvla.html

The global market for ceramic materials is expected to grow by 23.7% to US$37 billion in 2024

Driven by the industrial demand of automobiles and semiconductors, the global market for ceramic materials is expanding. According to a survey conducted by Fuji Keizai, a Japanese market research agency, the ceramic material market grew to US$31.2 billion in 2018 (15.53 million tons, an increase of 4.0% compared to 2017), and is expected to expand to US$37.09 billion in 2024 ( An increase of 23.7%). In terms of oxide ceramic materials, in addition to titanium oxide (Titanium Oxide), wet silica (Wet Silica), aluminum oxide (Aluminum Oxide), etc., which account for most of the demand, the growth of barium titanate (Barium Titanate) is stable. ) Because of the increase in demand for Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor (MLCC), its market growth has also attracted attention. Nitrides, under the background of miniaturization and high output power of automotive electronic equipment and other electronic components, the demand for heat dissipation materials has increased, and related adoption is expected to increase in the future.

Among the high-profile materials, silicon carbide (SiC), although the change in the slicing method of monocrystalline silicon ingots in China, has reduced the use of abrasives for solar cells, but there was still double-digit growth in 2018 Rate (increased by 11.7%), reaching 2.30 billion US dollars. Although the demand for solar cell abrasives is expected to disappear in the future, as the demand for engineering ceramics, power semiconductors and other applications increases, it is estimated that in 2024, it is expected to increase by 19.9% ​​compared to 2017, reaching US$2.47 billion.

In addition, about 90% of the demand for barium titanate is used as a dielectric material for multilayer ceramic capacitors. With the increase in the use of multilayer ceramic capacitors for automotive use, it has grown by 14.3% in 2018 and the amount has reached 400 million US dollars. . In view of the future progress of the Internet of Vehicles (IoT), the xEV of automobiles, and the 5G of mobile communications, it is expected to be substantially doubled in 2024 to reach US$710 million. The use of Boron Nitride, which is mostly used in molded products, is increasing in the use of heat dissipation materials. Although 2018 compared with 2017, it remained flat at US$130 million, but it is estimated to be in 2024 Can be expanded to 190 million US dollars (46.2% increase).

On the other hand, in the survey report, Fuji Keizai also made market forecasts for carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) ceramics, which are ceramic composite materials. Since carboxymethyl cellulose ceramics can reinforce the brittleness of ceramics, and have characteristics such as light weight and excellent heat resistance, the market size is gradually expanding, focusing on aviation applications. It is expected to grow by 50.6% by 2024. The market size of 5.42 billion US dollars. It is also foreseeable that in the future, the use of nickel-based (Ni) alloys in the replacement of nickel-based (Ni) alloys in aero engine components, or the use of disc brakes in automobiles will continue to expand.

Article source https://www.materialsnet.com.tw/DocView.aspx?id=37965